Let us understand what is four noble truths in Buddhism.
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
After 6 years of strenuous striving in His last life, the Buddha finally realized the Truth when He attained Supreme Enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya, India. This monumental event happened on the full-moon day of Wesak in 588 BC.
This topic of the "Four Noble Truths" is the very heart and core of Buddhism. These Truths, made known by the Buddha after His Enlightenment, constitute the essence of the Dhamma (Teaching), pervading every aspect and every part of it.
What are the Four Noble Truths ?
1) The Noble Truth of Dukkha or Suffering (Dukkha Sacca)
2) The Noble Truth of the Origin of Dukkha (Samudaya Sacca) 3) The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha (Nirodha Sacca)
4) The Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Dukkha (Magga Sacca)
Why are they called Noble Truths ( Ariya Sacca ) ?
They are truths because they are real and form an incontrovertible fact of life. Whether Buddhas arise or not, they exist in the world. It is the Buddhas who reveal them to mankind.
They are called Noble (Ariya) because they were discovered by the Greatest Noble Being i.e. one who is far removed from the passions. Alternatively, they are Noble Truths owing to the establishment of nobleness by the discovery and penetration of them i.e. those who have penetrated the Four Noble Truths are called Ariyas or Noble Ones.
WHAT IS THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING ?
Birth is suffering
According to Buddhism, the duration of each phenomenon consists of 3 phases viz. genesis, static or development, and dissolution. The moment of genesis is birth, the moment of dissolution is death and the static phase is ageing.
By the birth of a being is meant the genesis of the new mind and matter after death upon dissolution of the old existence i.e. the first germ of life in the new existence. No suffering or pain as such exists, of course, at the first moment of genesis but since birth serves as the basis for later appearance of physical and mental suffering throughout the whole of the ensuing existence, birth is considered as suffering.
2}Azeinz (Jara) is suffering.
Ageing means becoming grey-haired, toothless, wrinkled, bent, deaf and poor in eyesight. In other words, decay has set in, very recognizably, in the aggregates of mind and matter of a particular existence. Ageing of the mind is not so apparent and indications of it such as failing memory and senility become noticeable only when one becomes very old and then only to those close to oneself.
Ageing is just the static moment of the aggregates of mind and matter and has no essence of pain or suffering in it. But because of ageing, there occurs failing of vitality, impairment of the sense faculties, weakening of health, loss of youth, strength and good looks, people are really afraid of growing old. Since it forms the source of physical and mental suffering, ageing is said to be fearful dukkha.
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