3. DEATH (MARANA) IS SUFFERING
The thought of leaving the present existence and the uncertainty of the future is very frightening. As death draws near, all mortal beings are subjected to severe attacks of disease and illness, which rack the body with unbearable pain. Death, being the basis for all such physical and mental agony, has thus been named dukkha by the Buddha.
4)Sorrow (Soka) is suffering
Sorrow is the burning in the mind of one affected by the loss of relatives, destruction of property or possessions, deterioration of health and longevity, lapses in morality, deviation from right view to wrong view, any other loss, ruin or suffering. This sorrow is a form of mental displeasure (domanassa) but has inner consuming as its characteristic and as such is intrinsic suffering, dukkha-dukkha. Overwhelming distress occasioned by sorrow can cause heartburn leading to premature ageing and even death. Being thus a basis for other physical pains too, sorrow is fearsome and is therefore named dukkha by the Buddha.
5)Lamentation (Parideva) is suffering
Lamentation is wailing by one affected by loss of relatives, property and any other losses or suffering. Absent-mindedly and hysterically, the distressed one clamours, proclaiming the virtues of the dead and the quality of the lost property or denouncing the enemy or agency responsible for the loss. In reality, lamentation is merely the material quality of sound and therefore not suffering in essence. But such wailing and hysterical proclamations produce physical discomfort and pain. The Buddha had therefore declared lamentation as suffering. To cry is to be subjected to pain which is therefore suffering.
6)Physical pain (Dukkha) is suffering
Bodily pains such as stiffness, aches, soreness, tiredness, itchiness, feeling hot or cold are suffering. These physical pains are true intrinsic suffering called dukkha-dukkha. Even animals flee to safety at the slightest hint of getting beaten or shot at because they are afraid of physical pain. It is important to know that sickness and disease come under this category of physical pain. Physical pain is generally followed by mental distress and for thus serving as a cause for mental pain, it is named dukkha, dreadful suffering.
7)Mental displeasure (Domanassa) is suffering
The Pali word "domanassa" means bad-mindedness or mental pain. It denotes all sorts of mental aversion or displeasure such as worry, anxiety, depression, dislike, hate, fear, misery, etc. Mental displeasure also is intrinsic suffering which not only oppresses the mind but also tortures the body such as causing stress, insomnia, and loss of appetite with consequent impairment of health and even the advent of death. It is a truly formidable dukkha.